In Formula 1, teams invest significant resources in gaining an edge over their rivals. The sport pits the world’s most skilled and competitive drivers against each other, all vying for victory. But beyond the drivers themselves, race cars are marvels of engineering, equipped with the latest technology to achieve maximum performance.
This is where the Coanda Effect steps in. The phenomenon refers to the tendency of air to cling to the surface over which it moves, conforming to the solid and following its contours owing to the viscosity of fluids. F1 aerodynamic engineers manipulate this effect to ensure the airflow adheres to the car’s shape.
Despite its straightforward definition, the Coanda Effect can be utilised in numerous ways in Formula 1, and its application has a greater impact on the track. Although, it has also been a target of noteworthy controversies in recent years. In this article, we will cover the meaning of the Coanda Effect, how it is used in Formula 1, how teams measure it, and even how it was banned.
Knowing The Coanda Effect
The Coanda Effect is a phenomenon in fluid dynamics where a fluid or gas flowing over a surface will tend to follow the surface’s contour. In other words, if you have a curved surface, the fluid will stick to that surface rather than flow straight off. This effect is named after Romanian engineer Henri Coanda, who first observed it in the early 1930s.
The Coanda Effect has different applications in everyday life, from air conditioning and ventilation systems to aircraft design. But in Formula 1 racing, the effect has been utilised in many ways to enhance the performance of race cars.
In this context, teams use the effect to increase downforce and traction. When air is channelled over the curved surfaces, it creates an area of low pressure that works to suck the car down onto the road. This, in turn, improves the car’s grip and handling, allowing for faster speeds and more precise manoeuvrability.
This also helps reduce air resistance and drag, another significant factor in achieving top speeds. By channelling air over the car’s surfaces in a carefully controlled manner, less air turbulence is created, allowing it to move more smoothly through the air.
Appliance In Formula 1
In Formula 1, the Coanda Effect is used in a few different ways but holds significant importance. Especially in the car design aspect, the main objective is to reduce straight zones to minimise turbulence, and the air passes close to the surface.
To accomplish this, engineers make the pontoons curved and narrow, ensuring that the air follows them. Creating an aerodynamically resistant car is the key to success in this sport, and the engineers take advantage of this to manipulate its trajectory. This is achieved by shaping the car, such as the progressive gradient of the pontoons, which deflects the air. These pontoons are wide and taper as they approach the rear axle.
The design is focused on optimising airflow and reducing turbulence. This is secured through various aerodynamic elements, such as wings and side pods, which apply the phenomenon to guide airflow in the car. As the effect relies on the airflow speed, it is pertinent to note that Formula 1 cars feature curved surfaces rather than square zones. Faster airflow has more energy, permitting it to adhere to more curved surfaces, while slower airflow cannot adhere to steep curvatures.
Measuring The Effect
Measuring the Coanda Effect is not an easy task. Engineering teams use a variety of methods to measure the effect, including Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations and wind tunnel testing.
CFD simulations involve computer software to simulate the airflow over the car’s surface. This allows teams to see how the airflow will behave before they even build the car. Wind tunnel testing involves putting a scale model in a wind tunnel and measuring the airflow over the surface. With this, professionals can understand how the Coanda Effect affects airflow and make adjustments accordingly.
Of course, utilising the Coanda Effect has its challenges. Maintaining stability at high speeds can be difficult, and even slight deviations in airflow can cause disruptions in performance. The precision and technical expertise required to incorporate the effect into race car design is extremely high, requiring a great deal of expertise and attention to detail.
The Coanda Effect Exhaust Controversy
In preparation for the 2012 season, the FIA implemented several modifications to counteract the rising trend of using exhaust systems to impact a car’s aerodynamic output. This action came after the prohibition of double diffusers, later supplemented by efforts to restrict exhaust-blowing solutions.
Nonetheless, designers persisted in exploring blown floors as an effective means of enhancing car performance, taking advantage of the Coanda Effect to channel exhaust fumes down to the floor and creating the exhaust-blown diffuser. Red Bull and McLaren were prominent in this development, successfully discovering, enhancing, and employing the solution. Notably, Red Bull employed a less efficient solution during pre-season testing to maintain secrecy and reduce the time for other teams to replicate the design.
The Coanda Effect exhaust system was controversial from the start. Some teams argued that was illegal because it was a movable aerodynamic device. In the meantime, the governing body of Formula 1 ruled that the system was legal as long as it was passive and did not move during the race.
In 2013, FIA allowed the use of Coanda exhausts despite the financial burden on teams for their development. However, with the new hybrid rules in 2014, blowing the diffuser with the exhaust became obsolete. Thus, the 2014 regulations were modified, and the era of blown floors ended. The exhaust had to exit along the car’s centerline, limiting teams’ opportunities to invest in innovative solutions. Although Coanda Effect remains essential in aerodynamics, technical regulations have become more restrictive.
The impact of the Coanda Effect on Formula 1 racing cannot be overstated. The effect has played an essential role in pushing the boundaries of what’s possible in the sport, enabling teams to generate more downforce, making the cars faster and more competitive. Still, the effect was eventually banned, leading to a shift in aerodynamic design philosophy. Despite this, the Coanda Effect remains a crucial part of Formula 1 history and continues to influence the sport.